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SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS

Survival planning is nothing more than realizing something could happen that would put you in a survival situation and, with that in mind, taking steps to increase your chances of survival. Thus, survival planning means preparation.
Preparation means having survival items and knowing how to use them People who live in snow regions prepare their vehicles for poor road conditions. They put snow tires on their vehicles, add extra weight in the back for traction, and they carry a shovel, salt, and a blanket. Another example of preparation is finding the emergency exits on an aircraft when you board it for a flight. Preparation could also mean knowing your intended route of travel and familiarizing yourself with the area. Finally, emergency planning is essential.

IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING

Detailed prior planning is essential in potential survival situations. Including survival considerations in mission planning will enhance your chances of survival if an emergency occurs. For example, if your job re-quires that you work in a small, enclosed area that limits what you can carry on your person, plan where you can put your rucksack or your load-bearing equipment. Put it where it will not prevent you from getting out of the area quickly, yet where it is readily accessible.

One important aspect of prior planning is preventive medicine. Ensuring that you have no dental problems and that your immunizations are current will help you avoid potential dental or health problems. A dental problem in a survival situation will reduce your ability to cope with other problems that you face. Failure to keep your shots current may mean your body is not immune to diseases that are prevalent in the area.

Preparing and carrying a survival kit is as important as the considerations mentioned above. All Army aircraft normally have survival kits on board for the type area(s) over which they will fly. There are kits for over-water survival, for hot climate survival, and an aviator survival vest (see Appendix A for a description of these survival kits and their contents). If you are not an aviator, you will probably not have access to the survival vests or survival kits. However, if you know what these kits contain, it will help you to plan and to prepare your own survival kit.

Even the smallest survival kit, if properly prepared, is invaluable when faced with a survival problem. Before making your survival kit, however, consider your unit's mission, the operational environment, and the equipment and vehicles assigned to your unit.

SURVIVAL KITS

The environment is the key to the types of items you will need in your survival kit. How much equipment you put in your kit depends on how you will carry the kit. A kit carried on your body will have to be smaller than one carried in a vehicle. Always layer your survival kit, keeping the most important items on your body. For example, your map and compass should always be on your body. Carry less important items on your load-bearing equipment. Place bulky items in the rucksack.

In preparing your survival kit, select items you can use for more than one purpose. If you have two items that will serve the same function, pick the one you can use for another function. Do not duplicate items, as this increases your kit's size and weight.

Your survival kit need not be elaborate. You need only functional items that will meet your needs and a case to hold the items. For the case, you might want to use a Band-Aid box, a first aid case, an ammunition pouch, or another suitable case. This case should be--

In your survival kit, you should have--

Some examples of these items are--

Include a weapon only if the situation so dictates. Read about and practice the survival techniques in this manual. Consider your unit's mission and the environment in which your unit will operate. Then prepare your survival kit.

 

 

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CHAPTER 4

BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE

Foremost among the many problems that can compromise a survivor's ability to return to safety are medical problems resulting from parachute descent and landing, extreme climates, ground combat, evasion, and illnesses contracted in captivity.
Many evaders and survivors have reported difficulty in treating injuries and illness due to the lack of training and medical supplies. For some, this led to capture or surrender.
Survivors have related feeling of apathy and helplessness because they could not treat themselves in this environment. The ability to treat themselves increased their morale and cohesion and aided in their survival and eventual return to friendly forces.
One man with a fair amount of basic medical knowledge can make a difference in the lives of many. Without qualified medical personnel available, it is you who must know what to do to stay alive.

REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH

To survive, you need water and food. You must also have and apply high personal hygiene standards.

Water

Your body loses water through normal body processes (sweating, urinating, and defecating). During average daily exertion when the atmospheric temperature is 20 degrees Celsius (C) (68 degrees Fahrenheit), the average adult loses and therefore requires 2 to 3 liters of water daily. Other factors, such as heat exposure, cold exposure, intense activity, high altitude, burns, or illness, can cause your body to lose more water. You must replace this water.

Dehydration results from inadequate replacement of lost body fluids. It decreases your efficiency and, if injured, increases your susceptibility to severe shock. Consider the following results of body fluid loss:

The most common signs and symptoms of dehydration are--

You replace the water as you lose it. Trying to make up a deficit is difficult in a survival situation, and thirst is not a sign of how much water you need.

Most people cannot comfortably drink more than 1 liter of water at a time. So, even when not thirsty, drink small amounts of water at regular intervals each hour to prevent dehydration.

If you are under physical and mental stress or subject to severe conditions, increase your water intake. Drink enough liquids to maintain a urine output of at least 0.5 liter every 24 hours.

In any situation where food intake is low, drink 6 to 8 liters of water per day. In an extreme climate, especially an arid one, the average person can lose 2.5 to 3.5 liters of water per hour. In this type of climate, you should drink 14 to 30 liters of water per day.

With the loss of water there is also a loss of electrolytes (body salts). The average diet can usually keep up with these losses but in an extreme situation or illness, additional sources need to be provided. A mixture of 0.25 teaspoon of salt to 1 liter of water will provide a concentration that the body tissues can readily absorb.

Of all the physical problems encountered in a survival situation, the loss of water is the most preventable. The following are basic guidelines for the prevention of dehydration:

You can estimate fluid loss by several means. A standard field dressing holds about 0.25 liter (one-fourth canteen) of blood. A soaked T-shirt holds 0.5 to 0.75 liter.

You can also use the pulse and breathing rate to estimate fluid loss. Use the following as a guide:

Food

Although you can live several weeks without food, you need an adequate amount to stay healthy. Without food your mental and physical capabilities will deteriorate rapidly, and you will become weak. Food replenishes the substances that your body burns and provides energy. It provides vitamins, minerals, salts, and other elements essential to good health. Possibly more important, it helps morale.

The two basic sources of food are plants and animals (including fish). In varying degrees both provide the calories, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins needed for normal daily body functions.

Calories are a measure of heat and potential energy. The average person needs 2,000 calories per day to function at a minimum level. An adequate amount of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins without an adequate caloric intake will lead to starvation and cannibalism of the body's own tissue for energy.

Plant Foods

These foods provide carbohydrates--the main source of energy. Many plants provide enough protein to keep the body at normal efficiency. Although plants may not provide a balanced diet, they will sustain you even in the arctic, where meat's heat-producing qualities are normally essential. Many plant foods such as nuts and seeds will give you enough protein and oils for normal efficiency. Roots, green vegetables, and plant food containing natural sugar will provide calories and carbohydrates that give the body natural energy.

The food value of plants becomes more and more important if you are eluding the enemy or if you are in an area where wildlife is scarce. For instance--

Animal Foods

Meat is more nourishing than plant food. In fact, it may even be more readily available in some places. However, to get meat, you need to know the habits of, and how to capture, the various wildlife.

To satisfy your immediate food needs, first seek the more abundant and more easily obtained wildlife, such as insects, crustaceans, mollusks, fish, and reptiles. These can satisfy your immediate hunger while you are preparing traps and snares for larger game.

Personal Hygiene

In any situation, cleanliness is an important factor in preventing infection and disease. It becomes even more important in a survival situation. Poor hygiene can reduce your chances of survival.

A daily shower with hot water and soap is ideal, but you can stay clean without this luxury. Use a cloth and soapy water to wash yourself. Pay special attention to the feet, armpits, crotch, hands, and hair as these are prime areas for infestation and infection. If water is scarce, take an "air" bath. Remove as much of your clothing as practical and expose your body to the sun and air for at least 1 hour. Be careful not to sunburn.

If you don't have soap, use ashes or sand, or make soap from animal fat and wood ashes, if your situation allows. To make soap--

After the mixture--the soap--cools, you can use it in the semiliquid state directly from the pot. You can also pour it into a pan, allow it to harden, and cut it into bars for later use.

Keep Your Hands Clean

Germs on your hands can infect food and wounds. Wash your hands after handling any material that is likely to carry germs, after visiting the latrine, after caring for the sick, and before handling any food, food utensils, or drinking water. Keep your fingernails closely trimmed and clean, and keep your fingers out of your mouth.

Keep Your Hair Clean

Your hair can become a haven for bacteria or fleas, lice, and other parasites. Keeping your hair clean, combed, and trimmed helps you avoid this danger.

Keep Your Clothing Clean

Keep your clothing and bedding as clean as possible to reduce the chance of skin infection as well as to decrease the danger of parasitic infestation. Clean your outer clothing whenever it becomes soiled. Wear clean underclothing and socks each day. If water is scarce, "air" clean your clothing by shaking, airing, and sunning it for 2 hours. If you are using a sleeping bag, turn it inside out after each use, fluff it, and air it.

Keep Your Teeth Clean

Thoroughly clean your mouth and teeth with a toothbrush at least once each day. If you don't have a toothbrush, make a chewing stick. Find a twig about 20 centimeters long and 1 centimeter wide. Chew one end of the stick to separate the fibers. Now brush your teeth thoroughly. Another way is to wrap a clean strip of cloth around your fingers and rub your teeth with it to wipe away food particles. You can also brush your teeth with small amounts of sand, baking soda, salt, or soap. Then rinse your mouth with water, salt water, or willow bark tea. Also, flossing your teeth with string or fiber helps oral hygiene.

If you have cavities, you can make temporary fillings by placing candle wax, tobacco, aspirin, hot pepper, tooth paste or powder, or portions of a ginger root into the cavity. Make sure you clean the cavity by rinsing or picking the particles out of the cavity before placing a filling in the cavity.

Take Care of Your Feet

To prevent serious foot problems, break in your shoes before wearing them on any mission. Wash and massage your feet daily. Trim your toenails straight across. Wear an insole and the proper size of dry socks. Powder and check your feet daily for blisters.

If you get a small blister, do not open it. An intact blister is safe from infection. Apply a padding material around the blister to relieve pressure and reduce friction. If the blister bursts, treat it as an open wound. Clean and dress it daily and pad around it. Leave large blisters intact. To avoid having the blister burst or tear under pressure and cause a painful and open sore, do the following:

Get Sufficient Rest

You need a certain amount of rest to keep going. Plan for regular rest periods of at least 10 minutes per hour during your daily activities. Learn to make yourself comfortable under less than ideal conditions. A change from mental to physical activity or vice versa can be refreshing when time or situation does not permit total relaxation.

Keep Camp Site Clean

Do not soil the ground in the camp site area with urine or feces. Use latrines, if available. When latrines are not available, dig "cat holes" and cover the waste. Collect drinking water upstream from the camp site. Purify all water.

MEDICAL EMERGENCIES

Medical problems and emergencies you may be faced with include breathing problems, severe bleeding, and shock.

Breathing Problems

Any one of the following can cause airway obstruction, resulting in stopped breathing:

Severe Bleeding

Severe bleeding from any major blood vessel in the body is extremely dangerous. The loss of 1 liter of blood will produce moderate symptoms of shock. The loss of 2 liters will produce a severe state of shock that places the body in extreme danger. The loss of 3 liters is usually fatal.

Shock

Shock (acute stress reaction) is not a disease in itself. It is a clinical condition characterized by symptoms that arise when cardiac output is insufficient to fill the arteries with blood under enough pressure to provide an adequate blood supply to the organs and tissues.

LIFESAVING STEPS

Control panic, both your own and the victim's. Reassure him and try to keep him quiet.

Perform a rapid physical exam. Look for the cause of the injury and follow the ABCs of first aid, starting with the airway and breathing, but be discerning. A person may die from arterial bleeding more quickly than from an airway obstruction in some cases.

Open Airway and Maintain

You can open an airway and maintain it by using the following steps.

Step 1. Check if the victim has a partial or complete airway obstruction. If he can cough or speak, allow him to clear the obstruction naturally. Stand by, reassure the victim, and be ready to clear his airway and perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should he become unconscious. If his airway is completely obstructed, administer abdominal thrusts until the obstruction is cleared.

Step 2. Using a finger, quickly sweep the victim's mouth clear of any foreign objects, broken teeth, dentures, sand.

Step 3. Using the jaw thrust method, grasp the angles of the victim's lower jaw and lift with both hands, one on each side, moving the jaw forward. For stability, rest your elbows on the surface on which the victim is lying. If his lips are closed, gently open the lower lip with your thumb (Figure 4-1).

Step 4. With the victim's airway open, pinch his nose closed with your thumb and forefinger and blow two complete breaths into his lungs. Allow the lungs to deflate after the second inflation and perform the following:

Step 5. If the forced breaths do not stimulate spontaneous breathing, maintain the victim's breathing by performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

Step 6. There is danger of the victim vomiting during mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Check the victim's mouth periodically for vomit and clear as needed.

Note: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be necessary after cleaning the airway, but only after major bleeding is under control. See FM 21-20, the American Heart Association manual, the Red Cross manual, or most other first aid books for detailed instructions on CPR.

Control Bleeding

In a survival situation, you must control serious bleeding immediately because replacement fluids normally are not available and the victim can die within a matter of minutes. External bleeding falls into the following classifications (according to its source):

You can control external bleeding by direct pressure, indirect (pressure points) pressure, elevation, digital ligation, or tourniquet.

Direct Pressure

The most effective way to control external bleeding is by applying pressure directly over the wound. This pressure must not only be firm enough to stop the bleeding, but it must also be maintained long enough to "seal off" the damaged surface.

If bleeding continues after having applied direct pressure for 30 minutes, apply a pressure dressing. This dressing consists of a thick dressing of gauze or other suitable material applied directly over the wound and held in place with a tightly wrapped bandage (Figure 4-2). It should be tighter than an ordinary compression bandage but not so tight that it impairs circulation to the rest of the limb. Once you apply the dressing, do not remove it, even when the dressing becomes blood soaked.

Leave the pressure dressing in place for 1 or 2 days, after which you can remove and replace it with a smaller dressing.

In the long-term survival environment, make fresh, daily dressing changes and inspect for signs of infection.

Elevation

Raising an injured extremity as high as possible above the heart's level slows blood loss by aiding the return of blood to the heart and lowering the blood pressure at the wound. However, elevation alone will not control bleeding entirely; you must also apply direct pressure over the wound. When treating a snakebite, however, keep the extremity lower than the heart.

Pressure Points

A pressure point is a location where the main artery to the wound lies near the surface of the skin or where the artery passes directly over a bony prominence (Figure 4-3). You can use digital pressure on a pressure point to slow arterial bleeding until the application of a pressure dressing. Pressure point control is not as effective for controlling bleeding as direct pressure exerted on the wound. It is rare when a single major compressible artery supplies a damaged vessel.

If you cannot remember the exact location of the pressure points, follow this rule: Apply pressure at the end of the joint just above the injured area. On hands, feet, and head, this will be the wrist, ankle, and neck, respectively.

WARNING

Use caution when applying pressure to the neck. Too much pressure for too long may cause unconsciousness or death. Never place a tourniquet around the neck.

Maintain pressure points by placing a round stick in the joint, bending the joint over the stick, and then keeping it tightly bent by lashing. By using this method to maintain pressure, it frees your hands to work in other areas.

Digital Ligation

You can stop major bleeding immediately or slow it down by applying pressure with a finger or two on the bleeding end of the vein or artery. Maintain the pressure until the bleeding stops or slows down enough to apply a pressure bandage, elevation, and so forth.

Tourniquet

Use a tourniquet only when direct pressure over the bleeding point and all other methods did not control the bleeding. If you leave a tourniquet in place too long, the damage to the tissues can progress to gangrene, with a loss of the limb later. An improperly applied tourniquet can also cause permanent damage to nerves and other tissues at the site of the constriction.

If you must use a tourniquet, place it around the extremity, between the wound and the heart, 5 to 10 centimeters above the wound site (Figure 4-4). Never place it directly over the wound or a fracture. Use a stick as a handle to tighten the tourniquet and tighten it only enough to stop blood flow. When you have tightened the tourniquet, bind the free end of the stick to the limb to prevent unwinding.

After you secure the tourniquet, clean and bandage the wound. A lone survivor does not remove or release an applied tourniquet. In a buddy system, however, the buddy can release the tourniquet pressure every 10 to 15 minutes for 1 or 2 minutes to let blood flow to the rest of the extremity to prevent limb loss.

Prevent and Treat Shock

Anticipate shock in all injured personnel. Treat all injured persons as follows, regardless of what symptoms appear (Figure 4-5):

BONE AND JOINT INJURY

You could face bone and joint injuries that include fractures, dislocations, and sprains.

Fractures

There are basically two types of fractures: open and closed. With an open (or compound) fracture, the bone protrudes through the skin and complicates the actual fracture with an open wound. After setting the fracture, treat the wound as any other open wound.

The closed fracture has no open wounds. Follow the guidelines for immobilization, and set and splint the fracture.

The signs and symptoms of a fracture are pain, tenderness, discoloration, swelling deformity, loss of function, and grating (a sound or feeling that occurs when broken bone ends rub together).

The dangers with a fracture are the severing or the compression of a nerve or blood vessel at the site of fracture. For this reason minimum manipulation should be done, and only very cautiously. If you notice the area below the break becoming numb, swollen, cool to the touch, or turning pale, and the victim shows signs of shock, a major vessel may have been severed. You must control this internal bleeding. Rest the victim for shock, and replace lost fluids.

Often you must maintain traction during the splinting and healing process. You can effectively pull smaller bones such as the arm or lower leg by hand. You can create traction by wedging a hand or foot in the V-notch of a tree and pushing against the tree with the other extremity. You can then splint the break.

Very strong muscles hold a broken thighbone (femur) in place making it difficult to maintain traction during healing. You can make an improvised traction splint using natural material (Figure 4-6) as follows:

Note: Over time you may lose traction because the material weakened. Check the traction periodically. If you must change or repair the splint, maintain the traction manually for a short time.

Dislocations

Dislocations are the separations of bone joints causing the bones to go out of proper alignment. These misalignments can be extremely painful and can cause an impairment of nerve or circulatory function below the area affected. You must place these joints back into alignment as quickly as possible.

Signs and symptoms of dislocations are joint pain, tenderness, swelling, discoloration, limited range of motion, and deformity of the joint. You treat dislocations by reduction, immobilization, and rehabilitation.

Reduction or "setting" is placing the bones back into their proper alignment. You can use several methods, but manual traction or the use of weights to pull the bones are the safest and easiest. Once performed, reduction decreases the victim's pain and allows for normal function and circulation. Without an X ray, you can judge proper alignment by the look and feel of the joint and by comparing it to the joint on the opposite side.

Immobilization is nothing more than splinting the dislocation after reduction. You can use any field-expedient material for a splint or you can splint an extremity to the body. The basic guidelines for splinting are--

To rehabilitate the dislocation, remove the splints after 7 to 14 days. Gradually use the injured joint until fully healed.

Sprains

The accidental overstretching of a tendon or ligament causes sprains. The signs and symptoms are pain, swelling, tenderness, and discoloration (black and blue).

When treating sprains, think RICE--

R -

Rest injured area.

I -

Ice for 24 hours, then heat after that.

C -

Compression-wrapping and/or splinting to help stabilize. If possible, leave the boot on a sprained ankle unless circulation is compromised.

E -

Elevation of the affected area.

BITES AND STINGS

Insects and related pests are hazards in a survival situation. They not only cause irritations, but they are often carriers of diseases that cause severe allergic reactions in some individuals. In many parts of the world you will be exposed to serious, even fatal, diseases not encountered in the United States.

Ticks can carry and transmit diseases, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever common in many parts of the United States. Ticks also transmit the Lyme disease.

Mosquitoes may carry malaria, dengue, and many other diseases.

Flies can spread disease from contact with infectious sources. They are causes of sleeping sickness, typhoid, cholera, and dysentery.

Fleas can transmit plague.

Lice can transmit typhus and relapsing fever.

The best way to avoid the complications of insect bites and stings is to keep immunizations (including booster shots) up-to-date, avoid insect-infested areas, use netting and insect repellent, and wear all clothing properly.

If you get bitten or stung, do not scratch the bite or sting, it might become infected. Inspect your body at least once a day to ensure there are no insects attached to you. If you find ticks attached to your body, cover them with a substance, such as Vaseline, heavy oil, or tree sap, that will cut off their air supply. Without air, the tick releases its hold, and you can remove it. Take care to remove the whole tick. Use tweezers if you have them. Grasp the tick where the mouth parts are attached to the skin. Do not squeeze the tick's body. Wash your hands after touching the tick. Clean the tick wound daily until healed.

Treatment

It is impossible to list the treatment of all the different types of bites and stings. Treat bites and stings as follows:

Bee and Wasp Stings

If stung by a bee, immediately remove the stinger and venom sac, if attached, by scraping with a fingernail or a knife blade. Do not squeeze or grasp the stinger or venom sac, as squeezing will force more venom into the wound. Wash the sting site thoroughly with soap and water to lessen the chance of a secondary infection.

If you know or suspect that you are allergic to insect stings, always carry an insect sting kit with you.

Relieve the itching and discomfort caused by insect bites by applying--

Spider Bites and Scorpion Stings

The black widow spider is identified by a red hourglass on its abdomen. Only the female bites, and it has a neurotoxic venom. The initial pain is not severe, but severe local pain rapidly develops. The pain gradually spreads over the entire body and settles in the abdomen and legs. Abdominal cramps and progressive nausea, vomiting, and a rash may occur. Weakness, tremors, sweating, and salivation may occur. Anaphylactic reactions can occur. Symptoms begin to regress after several hours and are usually gone in a few days. Threat for shock. Be ready to perform CPR. Clean and dress the bite area to reduce the risk of infection. An antivenin is available.

The funnelweb spider is a large brown or gray spider found in Australia. The symptoms and

 

BASIC LIST OF SUGGESTED ITEMS FOR LONG TERM SURVIVAL

1. Water stored to last at least 5 days, at one gallon per day per person.

2. A good canteen and basins to catch rainwater. Also have a good supply of water purification tablets or bleach, or plan to boil your water. The surest way to purify water is to boil it for 15 to 20 minutes.

3. Food, per person, for one year:

Wheat - 300 lbs.

Rice - 100 lbs.

Beans, Peas, Lentils, 50 lbs. each

Honey or Sugar - 60 lbs.

Salt - 3 lbs.

Cayenne Pepper - 1 large can

Herbal Seasonings

Dried Milk - 80 lbs.

Peanut Butter - 50 lbs.

Dried Fruit

Canned food, or dried (ready to mix) food

Oatmeal - 50 lbs.

Alfalfa Seeds - 10 lbs.

Canned Sardines, tuna, salmon

If you have a baby, include formula and baby food. If you have pets, you will want food for them ass well. Store food needs in waterproof containers, capable of also protecting against insects and mice. Use Steel garbage cans or plastic 5 gallon buckets. The vacuum sealed method is also very good. If you are storing nuts or oatmeal, they smell and taste bad after a while, so they will need to be rotated. For all storing of food, the rule is: use up the old and replace with the new.

4. Manual grain grinder

5. Medicines - Assemble a standard first aid kit, with a comprehensive first aid book. Also include things for headache, upset stomach, congestion, colds, such as Pepto Bismol, aspirin, Tylenol, Excedrin, disinfectants, prescription medicines; and anything else you use regularly. Include vitamins, apple cider vinegar, honey, garlic, sage tea for colds, mint tea, golden seal, brandy (good as medicine), herbal tinctures, hops, catnip (which helps you sleep), herbs for cooking, including dried garlic and onions, cayenne pepper, cumin, basil, and coriander and salt. After you've been eating rice and beans for a few days, they'll need lots of help to make them taste good.

6. Toothbrushes, baking soda or salt to brush with, a good supply of dental floss (which can be used for other things as well) and another items you need for good tooth care.

7. Extra glasses

8. For a camp kitchen you need: camp stove with good supply of fuel (in wooded areas, all you need are rocks and a flat tin or grill), pots and pans, plates and bowls (unbreakable) (you can use Army surplus camp kits) cooking utensils, knife, forks, spoon, spatula, biodegradable dish soap, towels, bucket to carry water, dish pan, matches dipped in wax and stored in waterproof containers.

9. A good tent, sleeping bag for each person, extra blankets, sleeping pads, and ground cloth - and another waterproof tarp to cover your camp gear.

10. Clothing - Have clothing for all weather. Include a good warm coat and sweaters, hat for rain or shine, rain gear, a good pair of hiking boots that will take years to wear out, warm winter underwear, wool socks, summer socks (don't wear socks with holes in them as they cause blisters) (learn to darn socks) work gloves, hats, and whatever else you need for warmth and protection.

11. Hunting equipment. Hunting might be necessary for survival in some situations. Be prepared both with equipment and knowledge of how to use the equipment. First choice of a gun is a .22 caliber rifle. You can kill anything up to a deer with it. Purchase 500 rounds of .22 hollow point bullets. If you are not a good marksman, then get a 30-30 or 30-06 and at least 200 shells. A shotgun comes in handy for shooting things flying or running. The bow and arrow is still one of the best weapons. You will have to practice, and of course, you can never run out of shells. If you want to be unseen and unheard by unfriendly people, this would be a good idea.

12. Fishing equipment. - Get basic equipment. Include assorted sized hooks, fish lines, sinkers, etc. Fishing takes time, but if you are moving toward long-term survival, time is something you may have plenty of.

13. Wood stove. Get one with a secondary burn chamber. It uses less wood and creates less pollution. Get one with a flat top for cooking on.

14. Chain saw, extra gas and oil, spark plugs, chain, etc.

15. Bow saw and a tool to set the teeth with, extra blades.

16. Skill saw (for when you have electricity)

17. Axe, hatchet, files.

18. Spitting maul

19. Flashlights with extra batteries and bulbs; candles; propane, kerosene, or Coleman lantern with plenty of fuel, and extra wicks and mantles.

20. A good pocket knife and a sharpening stone.

21. Hammers, assorted nails, assorted screws, wrench set, pliers, wire cutters, screw drivers, pipe wrench, 200 feet of 1/4 inch nylon rope, duct tape.

22. Shovels, spades, hoes, and rakes with strong teeth

23. Charging system - wind, water, or solar - to pump water and provide electricity

24. Backpack - Waterproof. If you are forced to relocate, it may be all that goes with you.

25. Compass.

26. Up-to-date maps of the area you want to live in. This will show you land and water away from human habitation.

27. A 4 wheel drive vehicle with all the proper tools for maintaining it. Extra parts.

28. Tire chains for snow.

29. Radio. Have more than one. electrical and battery operated. Get a crank operated one. (See Art Bell show for this information) You'll want to know what's going on in the outside world.

30. Soap for laundry and bathing. Also learn how to make your own and have those supplies handy.

31. Natural insect repellent.

32. A mirror. You'll want to see yourself, but you can use it for signaling as well.

33. Extra toilet paper. Also keep old newspapers and telephone directories for emergencies. (Hint: if you need to use old newspaper, crinkle it up and straighten it out several times first -- it's much softer!)

34. Female needs - (Use cloth pads you can wash)

35. Baby diapers. (Use cloth you can wash) Older kids can go bare bottom when necessary. Indians used moss and grass when necessary.

36. A basic sewing kit (needles and threads)

37. Safety pins

38. Swiss Army knife

39. Bobby pins (you can work wonder with these)

40. Pencils and paper

41. Musical instruments (harmonica, flute, guitar) to lift the spirit

42. Crazy glue

43. Patch kit

In the survival sense, think warm clothing, think fleece.

Those fleece throws (the single blankets) are great gifts, roll up nice and compact and are very useful as blankets, capes, padding for sleeping on the ground, tablecloths or even hung up on a leanto to break the wind.

By the time everyone adds their ideas to your list we will all need a U-haul on the back of that 4 wheel drive vehicle. Hey not a bad idea to learn how to build your own trailer, all you need is a spare axle, couple of wheels, a hitch and some wood. Peace - Marguerite

44. Lots of good books to read.

45. .22 ammunition - amount stored should be 5000 rounds, not 500. It is small, inexpensive, and can be used as barter material if need be.

46. .30-30/.30-06 - other calibers to seriously consider are the .308, .270, .243, .223, and 7.62x39. Many people, myself included can't handle the recoil of a .30-06 (and I don't like .30-30). There are more rifles chambered in the calibers I mentioned than I can list, and all are good. It all depends on what you can afford. The amount of ammo one should store should be a minimum 1000 rounds, not 200.

47. A sturdy, fixed blad hunting knife should always be include. You can find these from Buck, Gerber, SOG, Camillus, Uncle Henry, and many others. I prefer the Camillus Pilot/Survival or Marine Combat knives. These have been made under contract for the US military for about four decades and have stood the test of time. They are also inexpensive ($25 and $35 respectively) so if one is lost or happens to break, you don't get as upset as you would should your Gerber BMF ($240) bite the dust.

48. Many people, myself included, have not been able to master the use of a sharpening stone. But with the use of a sharpening kit, such as those by Lansky, we can bring up a very sharp edge on our knives. Great for use on kitchen cutlery as well.

49. A pocket tool, such as those by Leatherman, Gerber, SOG, et al, are much more versatile than the Swiss Army Knife and their prices are comparable to the more expensive Swiss Army Knives. In the meantime, I will hang on to my SAK until I can afford a Leatherman Super Tool. (I still have a house to run.)

50. 200' to 500' of 550# test Paracord is a great addition to your supplies, especially when the 1/4" nylon cord/rope is too thick or not the right tool for the job.

51. Boiling water may be effective, but it is not the best way to purify water. Boiling removes the oxygen content and causes it to be flat. For EMERGENCY purposes only one can use un-scented household bleach to purify water, but you should use only 1/2 teaspoon per 5 gallons of water (1 tsp should the water be cloudy). The best method is to use HTH dry chlorine (65%), which can be purchased in bulk at stores like WalMart, Target, KMart, etc. (Also a great barter item.) The amount to use is 1/4 teaspoon (0.03 ounce) per 300 gallons for a 0.5 ppm of chlorine.

52. One can also get a complete cookset...cookpots, frying pan, coffee pot, plates, and cups...of good or better quality in the outdoor department of WalMart, Kmart, Target, etc., or a good outdoor supply store that sells camping equipment.

53. One should have two or three pairs of good hiking boots (U.S. issue combat boots are still the best and only cost $60-$80 mail order) in their closet and one dozen pair bootlaces per pair of boots (laces also come in handy for short term temporary uses, too). Should the long-term effect be much longer than anticpated, then the extra boots will be needed. Also a couple pair of good cross-trainers or running shoes would be advisable.

54.You should always have a handful of disposable lighters in addition to matches. They come in quite handy and you don't have to be a smoker to keep them on hand. They are inexpensive and take up very little room.

If you have questions, comments, or want to add to this list, e-mail Dee777@aol.com

BACK TO SURVIVAL INDEX

 

BASIC LIST OF SUGGESTED ITEMS FOR LONG TERM SURVIVAL

1. Water stored to last at least 5 days, at one gallon per day per person.

2. A good canteen and basins to catch rainwater. Also have a good supply of water purification tablets or bleach, or plan to boil your water. The surest way to purify water is to boil it for 15 to 20 minutes.

3. Food, per person, for one year:

Wheat - 300 lbs.

Rice - 100 lbs.

Beans, Peas, Lentils, 50 lbs. each

Honey or Sugar - 60 lbs.

Salt - 3 lbs.

Cayenne Pepper - 1 large can

Herbal Seasonings

Dried Milk - 80 lbs.

Peanut Butter - 50 lbs.

Dried Fruit

Canned food, or dried (ready to mix) food

Oatmeal - 50 lbs.

Alfalfa Seeds - 10 lbs.

Canned Sardines, tuna, salmon

If you have a baby, include formula and baby food. If you have pets, you will want food for them ass well. Store food needs in waterproof containers, capable of also protecting against insects and mice. Use Steel garbage cans or plastic 5 gallon buckets. The vacuum sealed method is also very good. If you are storing nuts or oatmeal, they smell and taste bad after a while, so they will need to be rotated. For all storing of food, the rule is: use up the old and replace with the new.

4. Manual grain grinder

5. Medicines - Assemble a standard first aid kit, with a comprehensive first aid book. Also include things for headache, upset stomach, congestion, colds, such as Pepto Bismol, aspirin, Tylenol, Excedrin, disinfectants, prescription medicines; and anything else you use regularly. Include vitamins, apple cider vinegar, honey, garlic, sage tea for colds, mint tea, golden seal, brandy (good as medicine), herbal tinctures, hops, catnip (which helps you sleep), herbs for cooking, including dried garlic and onions, cayenne pepper, cumin, basil, and coriander and salt. After you've been eating rice and beans for a few days, they'll need lots of help to make them taste good.

6. Toothbrushes, baking soda or salt to brush with, a good supply of dental floss (which can be used for other things as well) and another items you need for good tooth care.

7. Extra glasses

8. For a camp kitchen you need: camp stove with good supply of fuel (in wooded areas, all you need are rocks and a flat tin or grill), pots and pans, plates and bowls (unbreakable) (you can use Army surplus camp kits) cooking utensils, knife, forks, spoon, spatula, biodegradable dish soap, towels, bucket to carry water, dish pan, matches dipped in wax and stored in waterproof containers.

9. A good tent, sleeping bag for each person, extra blankets, sleeping pads, and ground cloth - and another waterproof tarp to cover your camp gear.

10. Clothing - Have clothing for all weather. Include a good warm coat and sweaters, hat for rain or shine, rain gear, a good pair of hiking boots that will take years to wear out, warm winter underwear, wool socks, summer socks (don't wear socks with holes in them as they cause blisters) (learn to darn socks) work gloves, hats, and whatever else you need for warmth and protection.

11. Hunting equipment. Hunting might be necessary for survival in some situations. Be prepared both with equipment and knowledge of how to use the equipment. First choice of a gun is a .22 caliber rifle. You can kill anything up to a deer with it. Purchase 500 rounds of .22 hollow point bullets. If you are not a good marksman, then get a 30-30 or 30-06 and at least 200 shells. A shotgun comes in handy for shooting things flying or running. The bow and arrow is still one of the best weapons. You will have to practice, and of course, you can never run out of shells. If you want to be unseen and unheard by unfriendly people, this would be a good idea.

12. Fishing equipment. - Get basic equipment. Include assorted sized hooks, fish lines, sinkers, etc. Fishing takes time, but if you are moving toward long-term survival, time is something you may have plenty of.

13. Wood stove. Get one with a secondary burn chamber. It uses less wood and creates less pollution. Get one with a flat top for cooking on.

14. Chain saw, extra gas and oil, spark plugs, chain, etc.

15. Bow saw and a tool to set the teeth with, extra blades.

16. Skill saw (for when you have electricity)

17. Axe, hatchet, files.

18. Spitting maul

19. Flashlights with extra batteries and bulbs; candles; propane, kerosene, or Coleman lantern with plenty of fuel, and extra wicks and mantles.

20. A good pocket knife and a sharpening stone.

21. Hammers, assorted nails, assorted screws, wrench set, pliers, wire cutters, screw drivers, pipe wrench, 200 feet of 1/4 inch nylon rope, duct tape.

22. Shovels, spades, hoes, and rakes with strong teeth

23. Charging system - wind, water, or solar - to pump water and provide electricity

24. Backpack - Waterproof. If you are forced to relocate, it may be all that goes with you.

25. Compass.

26. Up-to-date maps of the area you want to live in. This will show you land and water away from human habitation.

27. A 4 wheel drive vehicle with all the proper tools for maintaining it. Extra parts.

28. Tire chains for snow.

29. Radio. Have more than one. electrical and battery operated. Get a crank operated one. (See Art Bell show for this information) You'll want to know what's going on in the outside world.

30. Soap for laundry and bathing. Also learn how to make your own and have those supplies handy.

31. Natural insect repellent.

32. A mirror. You'll want to see yourself, but you can use it for signaling as well.

33. Extra toilet paper. Also keep old newspapers and telephone directories for emergencies. (Hint: if you need to use old newspaper, crinkle it up and straighten it out several times first -- it's much softer!)

34. Female needs - (Use cloth pads you can wash)

35. Baby diapers. (Use cloth you can wash) Older kids can go bare bottom when necessary. Indians used moss and grass when necessary.

36. A basic sewing kit (needles and threads)

37. Safety pins

38. Swiss Army knife

39. Bobby pins (you can work wonder with these)

40. Pencils and paper

41. Musical instruments (harmonica, flute, guitar) to lift the spirit

42. Crazy glue

43. Patch kit

In the survival sense, think warm clothing, think fleece.

Those fleece throws (the single blankets) are great gifts, roll up nice and compact and are very useful as blankets, capes, padding for sleeping on the ground, tablecloths or even hung up on a leanto to break the wind.

By the time everyone adds their ideas to your list we will all need a U-haul on the back of that 4 wheel drive vehicle. Hey not a bad idea to learn how to build your own trailer, all you need is a spare axle, couple of wheels, a hitch and some wood. Peace - Marguerite

44. Lots of good books to read.

45. .22 ammunition - amount stored should be 5000 rounds, not 500. It is small, inexpensive, and can be used as barter material if need be.

46. .30-30/.30-06 - other calibers to seriously consider are the .308, .270, .243, .223, and 7.62x39. Many people, myself included can't handle the recoil of a .30-06 (and I don't like .30-30). There are more rifles chambered in the calibers I mentioned than I can list, and all are good. It all depends on what you can afford. The amount of ammo one should store should be a minimum 1000 rounds, not 200.

47. A sturdy, fixed blad hunting knife should always be include. You can find these from Buck, Gerber, SOG, Camillus, Uncle Henry, and many others. I prefer the Camillus Pilot/Survival or Marine Combat knives. These have been made under contract for the US military for about four decades and have stood the test of time. They are also inexpensive ($25 and $35 respectively) so if one is lost or happens to break, you don't get as upset as you would should your Gerber BMF ($240) bite the dust.

48. Many people, myself included, have not been able to master the use of a sharpening stone. But with the use of a sharpening kit, such as those by Lansky, we can bring up a very sharp edge on our knives. Great for use on kitchen cutlery as well.

49. A pocket tool, such as those by Leatherman, Gerber, SOG, et al, are much more versatile than the Swiss Army Knife and their prices are comparable to the more expensive Swiss Army Knives. In the meantime, I will hang on to my SAK until I can afford a Leatherman Super Tool. (I still have a house to run.)

50. 200' to 500' of 550# test Paracord is a great addition to your supplies, especially when the 1/4" nylon cord/rope is too thick or not the right tool for the job.

51. Boiling water may be effective, but it is not the best way to purify water. Boiling removes the oxygen content and causes it to be flat. For EMERGENCY purposes only one can use un-scented household bleach to purify water, but you should use only 1/2 teaspoon per 5 gallons of water (1 tsp should the water be cloudy). The best method is to use HTH dry chlorine (65%), which can be purchased in bulk at stores like WalMart, Target, KMart, etc. (Also a great barter item.) The amount to use is 1/4 teaspoon (0.03 ounce) per 300 gallons for a 0.5 ppm of chlorine.

52. One can also get a complete cookset...cookpots, frying pan, coffee pot, plates, and cups...of good or better quality in the outdoor department of WalMart, Kmart, Target, etc., or a good outdoor supply store that sells camping equipment.

53. One should have two or three pairs of good hiking boots (U.S. issue combat boots are still the best and only cost $60-$80 mail order) in their closet and one dozen pair bootlaces per pair of boots (laces also come in handy for short term temporary uses, too). Should the long-term effect be much longer than anticpated, then the extra boots will be needed. Also a couple pair of good cross-trainers or running shoes would be advisable.

54.You should always have a handful of disposable lighters in addition to matches. They come in quite handy and you don't have to be a smoker to keep them on hand. They are inexpensive and take up very little room.